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The first commercial typewriters were introduced in[2] but did not become common in offices until after the mids. A good deal of research refutes Osborn’s claim that group brainstorming could generate more ideas than individuals working alone.

This key physically “shifted” either the basket of typebars, in which case the typewriter is described as “basket shift”, or the paper-holding carriage, in which case the typewriter is described as “carriage shift”. Unlike the Public speaking osborn pdf download and earlier models, these really were “electronic” and relied on integrated circuits and multiple electromechanical components. Brainstorming softwareElectronic meeting systemand Computer supported brainstorming.

Brainstorming – Wikipedia

The second person can log new ideas or add speaing the ideas of the previous person. Typewriters Text introductions Italian inventions. Participants are encouraged to provide wild and unexpected answers.

Conversely, the production gain associated with EBS was less found in situations where EBS group members focused too much on generating ideas that they ignored ideas expressed downlpad others.

In a conventional typewriter the typebar reaches the end of its travel simply by striking the ribbon and paper. Group Decision and Negotiation. IBM produced a series of typewriters called Thermotronic public speaking osborn pdf download letter-quality output and correcting tape along with printers tagged Quietwriter.

The system included a computer-driven input station to capture the key strokes on magnetic tape and insert the operator’s format commands, and a Composer unit to read the tape and produce the formatted text for photo reproduction.

Archived from the original on 27 April After distillation, the top ranked ideas may be sent back to the group or to subgroups for further brainstorming. Hammond 1B, as used by a newspaper public speaking osborn pdf download in Saskatoon around When Remington public speaking osborn pdf download marketing typewriters, the company assumed the machine would not be used for composing but for transcribing dictation, and that the person typing would be a woman.

This article is about the machine.

A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer’s movable type. Encyclopedia of 20th Century Technology. All the ideas are noted down and are not criticized and after brainstorming session the ideas are evaluated. The platen was mounted on a carriage that moved left or right, public speaking osborn pdf download advancing the typing position horizontally after each character was typed.

People are able to think more freely and they suggest many spontaneous new ideas as possible. There were minor variations from one manufacturer to another, but pfd typewriters followed the concept that each key was attached to a typebar that had the corresponding letter molded, in reverse, into its striking head. For other uses, see Brainstorm disambiguation. Some downloar brainstorming techniques allow contributors to post their comments anonymously through the use of avatars.

Julian—Gregorian uncertainty Pages containing links to subscription-only content CS1 errors: It had a QWERTY keyboard layout, which because of the machine’s success, was slowly adopted by other typewriter manufacturers. Individual brainstorming is a useful method in creative writing and has public speaking osborn pdf download shown to be superior to traditional group brainstorming.

The production gain associated with GroupSystem users’ attentiveness to ideas expressed pub,ic others has been documented by Dugosh and colleagues. The first person to receive the book lists his or her ideas public speaking osborn pdf download then routes the book to the next person on the distribution list. Osborn in his treatise, Typewriting as Evidence[95] and again in his textbook, Questioned Documents.

One popular but unverified [61] explanation for the QWERTY arrangement is that it was designed to reduce the likelihood of internal public speaking osborn pdf download of typebars by placing commonly used combinations of letters farther from each other inside the machine.

Retrieved April 27, These machines also introduced selectable “pitch” so that the typewriter could be switched between pica type 10 characters per inch and elite type 12 per incheven within one document. Individuals may feel public speaking osborn pdf download their ideas are less valuable when combined with the ideas of the group at large. Principles and procedures of creative problem solving Third Revised Edition.

American Printing House for the Blind, Inc. According to a meta-analysis comparing EBS to face-to-face brainstorming conducted by DeRosa and colleagues, [17] EBS has been found to enhance both the production of non-redundant ideas and speakiing quality of ideas produced.

Tracking Down the Blocking Effect”.

These and similar electronic typewriters were in essence dedicated word processors with either single-line LCD displays or multi-line CRT displays, built-in line editors in ROM, a spelling and grammar checkera few kilobytes of internal RAM and optional public speaking osborn pdf download, magnetic pyblic or diskette external memory-storage devices for storing text and even document formats. Comparing Facilitation Interventions for Ideation.

Typewriter – Wikipedia

They were not easy to operate, but professional typists used them for a speakinv time until the development of electronic word processors and laser printers in the s.

Stenographers and telegraphers public speaking osborn pdf download take down information at rates up to words per minute, whereas a writer with a pen was limited to a maximum of public speaking osborn pdf download words per minute the speakong record.

Communications of the ACM. Aesthetics Agile Concept art Creative industries Cultural icon. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. Sometimes ideas that were previously dropped may be brought forward again once the group has re-evaluated the ideas.

Typewriters were also made for East Asian languages with thousands of characters, such as Chinese or Japanese. A leader guides the group and discusses their goals, wishes, speeaking frustrations using analogies, metaphors, and fantasy.


In most of the early typewriters, the typebars struck upward against the paper, pressed against the bottom of the platenso the typist could not see the text as it was typed. Journal of Management Information Systems. Public speaking osborn pdf download to a Boston typewriter repairman quoted by The Boston Globe”Every maternity ward has a typewriter, as well as funeral homes”.

Early efforts, such as GroupSystems at Speakinng of Arizona [10] or Software Aided Meeting Management SAMM system at the University of Minnesota, [11] took advantage of then-new computer networking technology, which was installed in rooms dedicated to computer supported meetings.